What Does CBD Gummies Do To Your Brain

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Here are 5 ways CBD affects your brain that you've probably never heard of. Think you know everything about this wondrous compound? Think again. How Does CBD Affect the Brain? Impact of Cannabidiol on Brain Function The one-of-a-kind neurological effects of CBD are the main reason why this supplement has grabbed the world of wellness Does the scientific evidence show beneficial effects of CBD on various ailments? We break it down.

5 Ways CBD Affects Your Brain That’ll Blow Your Mind

The CBD industry continues to grow at an extraordinary rate. However, there is still a remarkable amount of misinformation when it comes to the cannabinoid. One of the biggest mistakes relating to CBD is the notion that it is non-psychoactive. In reality, cannabidiol is non-intoxicating, and there is a BIG difference.

THC, the cannabinoid associated with a psychotropic high, is intoxicating — CBD is not.

In reality, psychoactive chemicals act on the central nervous system (CNS) and alter brain function. As a result, they cause temporary changes in consciousness, behavior, mood, or perception. CBD impacts mood and other behaviors, so there are psychoactive effects. In this guide, we illustrate five of them.

How Does CBD Affect Your Brain?

Our endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of numerous endocannabinoids; these are neurotransmitters that bind to receptors throughout our CNS and peripheral nervous system. Our ECS helps regulate a variety of cognitive and physiological processes in the body, such as memory, pain, stress response, and appetite.

The cannabis plant contains over 110 cannabinoids that bind with ECS receptors. The two main receptors are CB1 and CB2, although scientists believe there may be more. CB1 receptors are prevalent in the CNS and regulate pain, appetite, mood, coordination, and other functions. CB2 receptors are prevalent in the body and immune system, and primarily affect pain and inflammation.

THC closely mimics a naturally occurring cannabinoid named anandamide which binds to the CB1 receptors, which are responsible for many of THC’s psychoactive effects. As the psychoactive cannabinoid binds to anandamide’s CB1 receptors even more closely than anandamide, which is known as ‘the bliss molecule.’ It inhibits the release of other neurotransmitters. This helps explain the feelings of euphoria associated with the ‘high’ from cannabis.

Understanding CBD

CBD has a much milder effect on the receptors. It only binds itself to the CB1 receptors loosely and results in the blocking of the receptors, mitigating THC’s psychoactive effects. CBD also inhibits anandamide degradation, which leads to increased circulating levels of the molecule.

The brain has protein receptors throughout it that respond to endocannabinoids.

When you consume cannabis, the plant’s cannabinoids bind to the receptors in a manner akin to a key fitting into a lock. The receptors that are affected and parts of the brain that get involved vary from person to person depending on factors such as previous drug use and genetic make-up.

Now that we have explored a little of the science behind CBD’s effects; let’s look at five specific ways it impacts the human brain.

5 Ways CBD Affects our Brain

1 – CBD Reduces Blood Flow

A study by Crippa et al., published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology in September 2010, looked at the effects of CBD on a small group of subjects with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The researchers discovered that the participants felt better, and CBD helped change the way their brains responded to anxiety. What’s fascinating; the brain scans revealed changes in blood flow to the areas of the brain usually linked with anxiety.

2 – CBD Works to Manage Pain

Those who suffer from chronic pain are using CBD in the belief that the cannabinoid can help manage the symptoms. CBD modifies CB2 receptors’ ability to bind endocannabinoids. Alternatively, it may cause the body to produce more of the natural cannabinoids that attach to the CB2 receptors.

While scientists are not completely sure, they believe that CBD also affects the way in which these receptors respond to the pain signals we receive, which helps reduce pain and inflammation.

3 – Reduces Oxidative Damage

The way in which our bodies manage oxidative stress plays a huge role in maintaining good health. Oxidative stress is a natural process that happens at a cellular level. When a cell generates energy, it generates free radicals as a waste product. Environmental toxins, such as smog exposure, can also create free radicals.

Our body responds to the creation of free radicals by using antioxidants to stabilize the waste and ensure they don’t cause damage to the DNA in our cells. However, if the free radicals are too numerous and we don’t produce enough antioxidants, the waste products begin stealing DNA particles. This process can result in the development of conditions such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and atherosclerosis.

CBD acts on the CB2 receptors to decrease the level of oxidative damage. Possessing strong antioxidant abilities, researchers believe that cannabidiol’s neuroprotective antioxidant capacity is similar to that of Vitamins C and E.

A study by Cheng et al., published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease in 2014, found that long-term CBD treatment “prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice.” The researchers also wrote that CBD exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo.

4 – CBD Lowers the Degree of Excitation in Brain Cells

Excitotoxicity is the damage caused when our brain cells become overactive due to excessive stimulation. It can result from traumatic brain injury, stroke, hearing loss, and neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s.

Glutamine-dependent excitotoxicity is seen in practically every age-related neurodegenerative disease and brain disorder. It also happens to be one of the main molecular mechanisms noted in epilepsy. In recent times, there has been an increasing level of research into CBD as a treatment for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

A study by Pretzsch et al., published in the Neuropsychopharmacology journal in February 2019, looked at the effects of CBD on brain excitation and inhibition systems. The team concluded that CBD could ‘shift’ the level of Glx and GABA+ metabolites; they are known to contribute to the regulation of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the autistic and typical brains. The researchers pointed out that further studies were required.

5 – CBD Has Significant Antipsychotic Properties

This benefit relates to CBD’s effects on anandamide. Anandamide was discovered in the 1990s and is a neurotransmitter that can both improve mood while also potentially reducing pain sensitivity.

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) breaks down anandamide. However, CBD inhibits the FAAH enzyme, which means the bliss molecule remains active in the ECS for longer; thus enhancing its potency.

CBD’s antipsychotic effects relate to its impact on anandamide. Scientists link higher levels of the bliss molecule with a decrease in psychotic symptoms. A study by Leweke et al. published in Translational Psychiatry in March 2012, looked into the effect of CBD on anandamide production.

The researchers wrote that an elevation of anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid inversely correlates to psychotic symptoms. The team performed a double-blind, randomized trial of CBD versus a potent antipsychotic. Ultimately, the study found that CBD boosted anandamide signaling and alleviated the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.

Final Thoughts About CBD

Ultimately, cannabidiol is one of the fastest-growing supplements in the world at present. Consumers are turning to CBD to manage conditions such as migraines, brain fog, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. As the popularity of CBD increases, so does the number of anecdotal accounts regarding its efficacy, not to mention a significant rise in scientific studies.

However, we still need further clinical trials involving humans to confirm CBD’s positive neurological effects.

The cannabinoid’s effects on the brain appear to be many and profound, but we need more confirmatory studies. We advise all readers to steer clear of CBD sellers that try to portray cannabidiol as a ‘cure-all.’ There is no question that the existing research is exciting, but it would be irresponsible to draw too many conclusions just yet.

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If you decide to see what all the hype is about for yourself, stick to tried, and trusted CBD sellers that have developed a stellar reputation.

How Does CBD Affect the Brain? Impact of Cannabidiol on Brain Function

The one-of-a-kind neurological effects of CBD are the main reason why this supplement has grabbed the world of wellness products by the throat. Unlike other cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant, CBD has its own way of interacting with the endocannabinoid system.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical compound whose largest concentration can be found in hemp , a close relative of marijuana – the two come from the same mother plant (Cannabis Sativa L.). CBD is non-intoxicating ; in other words, CBD doesn’t make people feel high , but it allows them to draw a myriad of health benefits from this particular cannabinoid.

The list of medical conditions alleviated by CBD includes anxiety, inflammation, pain, lethargy, aging, skin and bones injuries, and other health concerns . When administered, it allows a person to feel relaxed without the mind-altering effects induced by THC.

Why Is CBD Different From THC and Other Cannabinoids?

As we said, there is a notable difference between CBD and other cannabinoids, or chemicals that are found in both hemp and marijuana.

While all other active compounds of the plant interact with two cannabinoid receptors in the nervous system, CB1 and CB2, Cannabidiol has very little effect on both. CB1 receptors are found in different regions of the brain, including those responsible for controlling emotion, pain, cognition, and memory . CB2 receptors, on the other hand, regulate inflammatory responses and bolster the immune system . [ 1 ]

Others spread myths about CBD over the internet that it interacts with the cannabinoid receptors, but they are completely mistaken. CBD stimulates the endocannabinoid system to produce more of its own cannabinoids and slows their breakdown. [ 2 ] Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on the other hand, binds to CB1 and CB2 receptors, activating them and thus changing a person’s thinking, memory, pleasure, and pain perception, and concentration. These effects contribute to what we describe as a marijuana high.

Interestingly, CBD may also alter the effects of THC by blocking the CB1 receptors in places where THC taps. In higher doses, THC can induce anxiety and paranoia in some users, which is why many people are afraid to try weed. But strains that are high in CBD tend to mitigate these effects, allowing you to enjoy the benefits of marijuana without a disturbance.

Potential Neurological Effects of CBD Oil

CBD is known to have a tremendous number of medicinal properties, but because the field of marijuana research is in its infancy, we still need more studies to examine the full potential of the plant’s compounds.

Below, we list some of the documented neurological effects of CBD oil that may help you put an end to your ailments.

Neuroprotective Effects

CBD could be helpful when it comes to treating neurological diseases due to its neuroprotective properties. In other words, CBD protects neurons from degeneration , which helps a person’s brain remain younger. In a study on Alzheimer’s Disease, CBD was shown to inhibit the development of Alzheimer’s symptoms [ 3 ].

Pain-killing Effects

CBD is a natural pain suppressor [ 4 ]. It’s capable of inhibiting neuronal transmission without causing analgesic tolerance and substance dependence. Because of these qualities, researchers came to the conclusion that CBD and other non-intoxicating cannabinoids can be used as an effective alternative to prescription opioid drugs when it comes to treating chronic pain.

On top of that, the topical use of CBD has been shown by numerous studies to improve joint mobility and speed up the healing process after an injury. Many professional athletes use CBD to fight muscle inflammation and other pain-related issues .

Anti-cancer Effects

As research shows, very high doses of CBD can be used to cease the growth of cancer cells due to its antitumor properties. What’s optimistic about the neurological effects of CBD oil is that it has no toxic effects on humans [ 5 ]. This study also shows that CBD could even help treat leukemia and similar illnesses.

Anti-anxiety Effects

CBD has long been praised for its anti-anxiety effects. Actually, this is the number one reason why people use CBD oil. When you scan the Internet for positive voices of Cannabidiol, you will come across a sea of success stories of patients that managed to go cold turkey on their drug cocktails thanks to CBD.

As for the scientific evidence, a 2011 study tested 24 patients with social anxiety disorders. 1.5 hours before the test, the patients were administered CBD oil or a placebo. It was found that the anxiety levels, cognitive impairment, and social discomfort in patients who were given CBD had dropped significantly as compared to the placebo subjects [ 6 ].

How Does CBD Affect The Brain

Cannabidiol acts through various molecular pathways , which explains the neurological effects of CBD oil. Although CBD doesn’t tap into two of the cannabinoid receptors, it stimulates the activity of the endocannabinoid system through several different receptor-independent routes . CBD also strengthens and inhibits the binding action of certain protein-coupled receptors.

Here’s a quick breakdown of the receptor systems that are affected by CBD.

1. CBD And The Serotonin System

Serotonin receptors affect a wide range of bodily and brain functions. For example, they affect a person’s cognition, mood, appetite, and pain perception , but they are also responsible for our reactions to stress – serotonin receptors regulate the release of hormones that control the above functions.

CBD targets the serotonin 1A receptor , which is why scientists believe Cannabidiol can be so useful in treating pain, anxiety, and obesity. Moreover, the increased activity of serotonin 1A receptors has been linked by researchers to CBD’s potential influence on certain issues such as depression, nausea from chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and schizophrenia .

2. CBD And Vanilloid Receptors

CBD attaches to vanilloid receptors , also known as TRPV1 receptors, to achieve certain therapeutic effects. Because TRPV1 is an ion channel, it helps the body r egulate its temperature, control inflammation, and change the perception of pain .

3. CBD And Orphan Receptors

The orphan receptor has got its name because scientists are still unsure if it belongs to a larger receptor family. Also called GPR55 , the orphan receptor is responsible for regulating blood pressure, bone density, and bone reabsorption .

When the orphan receptor shows signs of constant overactivity, it may eventually cause osteoporosis and contribute to the multiplication and migration of tumor cells. CBD inhibits GPR55 signaling, which is linked to the ability of this cannabinoid to stop the growth of cancer.

4. CBD And Nuclear Receptors

Nuclear receptors are also referred to PPARs, short for proliferator-activated receptors. Their activity is attributed to antitumor effects. CBD activates PPARs, which are found on the surface of the cell’s nucleus. When the PPAR-gamma receptor is stimulated, it triggers an antiproliferative effect that has been shown to cause cancer to regress in lung cancer cell families .

5. CBD As An Anandamide Booster

A 2016 study published in the Frontiers of Pharmacology showed that CBD on the brain inhibits the breakdown of anandamide , which boosts endocannabinoid levels on the brain’s synapses. Anandamide is often called the human version of marijuana because anandamide and THC are much alike in their chemical structure. They also produce similar effects; anandamide controls mood, pain perception, body temperature, appetite, and more.

CBD interacts with the same intracellular molecules that transport THC and anandamide to different parts inside the cell. It also has a strong bond with three kinds of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). Once endocannabinoids get inside the cell, the process of anandamide’s breakdown begins. Cannabidiol reduces anandamide’s access to transport FABP and thus delays it from entering the cell, slowing its breakdown [ 7 ].

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Medical Benefits of CBD For the Brain

Now, let’s sum up some of the most noteworthy therapeutic properties of CBD.

1. Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

While THC can increase anxiety in some people , especially if administered in high doses, a study conducted by Neurotherapeutics has found that CBD can help reduce the anxiety experienced by patients with anxiety disorders. The neurological effects of CBD could lead to the emergence of all-natural anti-anxiety therapies in the nearest future [ 8 ].

2. Seizures

According to a study posted in Epilepsia, CBD may treat seizures, epilepsy, and neuropsychiatric disorders . Not only does CBD have a wide range of antiseizure properties, but it also has a low risk of undesired effects on people who already suffer from epilepsy. This particular quality of Cannabidiol has given rise to more and more studies aimed at determining how exactly CBD and other cannabinoids can potentially treat disorders linked to epilepsy, especially neurodegeneration and neuronal injuries.

3. Insomnia

Since CBD can help reduce stress, anxiety, and pain, it may prove an effective natural sleep aid. CBD also controls the sleep-wake cycle ; in other words, it induces wakefulness and reduces daytime sleepiness in low doses, but large amounts of these cannabinoids administered a few hours before bedtime can have a sedating effect that often results in a good night’s sleep [ 9 ].

Unlocking CBD’s Unequivocal Potential

While most of the research available today has put its focus on understanding the relationship between humans and THC, CBD on the brain has been recently shown to have great potential with regard to its medical versatility. Once we fully understand all the properties of hemp and marijuana, we will be able to unlock its full power and use it in a way that could benefit us even more than it does now.

Let’s hope that scientists will soon find newer ways to improve human health and regeneration with natural resources so that people can have true freedom of choice when it comes to choosing their treatment options.

  1. Battista N., Tomasso D. M., Bari M., Maccarone M. The Endocannabinoid System: An Overview. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2012; 6: 9. Published online in March 2012. Pre-published online in December 2011.
  2. Ahn K., McKinney K. M., and Cravatt B. F. Enzymatic Pathways That Regulate Endocannabinoid Signalling in the Nervous System. Chemical Reviews., 2008, 108 (5), pp 1687 – 1707. Published online in April 2008.
  3. Campbell V. A., Gowran A. Alzheimer’s Disease: Taking the Edge Off With Cannabinoids? Department of Physiology and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin.British Journal of Pharmacology (2007) 152, 655-622. Published Online in September 2007.
  4. Russo E. Cannabinoids in the Management of Difficult to Treat Pain. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (2008); 4(1): 24-259. Published online in February 2008.
  5. Massi P., Solinas M., Cinquina V., and Parolaro D. Cannabidiol as Potential Anticancer Drug. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2013); 75(2): 303-312. Published online in April 2012.
  6. Beramaschi M. M. et al. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naive Social Phobia Patients. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011); 36(6): 1219-1226. Published online in February 2011.
  7. Deutsch DG. A Personal Retrospective: Elevating Anandamide (AEA) by Targetting Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) and the Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs). Frontier of Pharmacology (2016); 7:370. Published online in 2016.
  8. Blessing E. M., Steenkamp M. M., Manzanares J., and Marmar C. R. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Neurotherapeutics (2015); 12(4): 825-836. Published online in September 2015.
  9. Devinsky O. et al. Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and Potential Therapeutic Role in Epilepsy and Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Epilepsia (2014); 55(6): 791-802. Published online in May 2014.
Livvy Ashton

Livvy is a registered nurse (RN) and board-certified nurse midwife (CNM) in the state of New Jersey. After giving birth to her newborn daughter, Livvy stepped down from her full-time position at the Children’s Hospital of New Jersey. This gave her the opportunity to spend more time writing articles on all topics related to pregnancy and prenatal care.

The Science Behind CBD’s Effects on the Brain and Body

Our current reality is undoubtedly anxiety-inducing. And understandably, demand for household products such as toilet-paper and hand sanitizer has spiked in response. But perhaps more surprising is the surge in e-commerce sales of self-care products containing CBD oil. CBD is perhaps best known for its beneficial effects on anxiety and sleep, and up until recently, this was merely hearsay.[1] The past five years have been pivotal for the legalization of CBD and its use in clinical trials. But does the science support the hype behind this craze? We’re laying out the research so you can be an informed consumer.

As always, consult a medical doctor before taking any nutritional supplements InsideTracker recommends. If you have or suspect a medical condition or are taking any medications, please consult a doctor before acting on any of our recommendations.

First, CBD largely does not come from marijuana plants

Let’s start from the beginning. Derivatives of the ancient plant family Cannabis sativa have been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for thousands of years. The plant contains nearly 100 active compounds called phytocannabinoids, two of which are tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, AKA “THC”) and cannabidiol (CBD). And generations of selective breeding of cannabis plants have produced two of the most common modern strains: hemp and marijuana.[2] The difference between these two strains can be distinguished by their ratio of CBD and THC: while marijuana plants are bred to have relatively high amounts of Δ9-THC, hemp plants are bred for higher concentrations of CBD and actually contain negligible amounts of Δ9-THC—less than 0.3% per unit of dry weight.[2]

The similarities and differences between THC and CBD

In the body, Δ9-THC and CBD interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS), an important signaling pathway that regulates stress, inflammation, anxiety, and depression.[3] And while Δ9-THC and CBD have the same molecular structure, slight differences in the arrangement of their atoms impart very different effects on the ECS.[2]

Δ9-THC is known for producing psychoactive effects in the body through the activation of two receptors in the central nervous system called CB1 and CB2.[2,3] The activation of these receptors triggers physiological processes across multiple organ systems, most notably the release of neurotransmitters from the central nervous system that impart the psychoactive effects associated with feeling “high”.[4]

Alternatively, CBD binds to CB1 and CB2 at a much slower rate than Δ9-THC, which results in the activation of similar physiological processes without the psychoactive or “high” effects.[4] These physiologic effects make CBD promising for clinical benefits, many of which have been tested in small-scale trials and evaluated in systematic reviews over recent years. Now, let’s get into those results and summarizing what we know so far.

A summary of the research of CBD on.

The most commonly-reported use of recreational CBD is as a treatment for anxiety. In one study, participants with social anxiety disorder who were given a one-time dosage of 600mg one hour before speaking publicly had reduced self-reported anxiety compared to a control group.[5] These anxiety-mitigating effects were replicated in a separate study of healthy subjects who were given a 300mg dose.[6] And it seems that these results are standard—a review of 11 trials found that CBD reduced anxiety when taken one hour before an anxiety-inducing event, and a compilation of case reports found that nearly 80% of patients given CBD for anxiety saw reductions in one month.[7,8]

These studies yield promising results, but cannot definitively determine that CBD improves anxiety. Larger, well-designed trials must be conducted to confirm the association between CBD and improved anxiety. For now, you can also try these strategies to reduce stress.

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PTSD

Multiple reviews have concluded that sufficient evidence is still lacking on the effects of CBD on mental disorders or their symptoms.[9,10] One study found that CBD may reduce nightmares and sleep disturbances in those with PTSD, but again, larger scale, well-designed trials are warranted to confirm this relationship.[11]

Pain

Alternative therapies for pain management are of particular interest given the highly-addictive nature of modern pain medication. Early, small-scale studies suggest that, while CBD is not effective for the management of acute, short-term pain, it may play a role in chronic, long-term pain.[12,13] In one study, 97 chronic pain patients swapped their opioid prescriptions for 30mg of daily CBD for a year. The results showed that CBD improved quality of life in 94% of participants, reduced or eliminated opioid use in 53% of participants, and significantly improved sleep quality in the group after just eight weeks.[14]

Such results aren’t always clinically relevant, however. Another study found that, while CBD was effective in reducing chronic pain by about 1.5 points on an 11-point pain scale, such a change was likely not large enough to make a clinical difference in patient outcomes.[15] So, again, these promising preliminary results warrant larger, higher-powered studies.

Sleep

CBD likely has a dose-dependent effect on sleep—it appears that low doses are stimulating and keep you awake, but larger doses have a sedating effect and can improve sleep time and wakefulness during the night.[16,17] But scientific evidence behind these effects is limited and the mechanism behind them is not yet clear. Further trials are warranted, and until then, check out these proven ways to improve your sleep.

Inflammation

Physiologically, it would make sense that CBD could play a role in lowering inflammation levels due to its interaction with the ECS. In cellular and animal studies, CBD has displayed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.[4,18,19] And while this data is promising, the impact of CBD on inflammation must be tested in humans before this relationship can reliably be marketed. But watch this space—the relationship between CBD and inflammation will be important to understand, as inflammation plays a role in many chronic conditions.

Adverse Effects

As is standard in trials of a novel substance, these studies closely monitored adverse effects of taking CBD—and none were found. However, the FDA has yet to approve CBD as safe due to gaps in current knowledge on potential side effects, most notably for “liver injury, drug interaction, male productive toxicity, and drowsiness.”[20] Additional studies in larger populations are underway and should shed more light on the safety and efficacy of CBD.

The latest on CBD’s legal status

The 2018 Farm Bill legalized industrial hemp, creating a huge market opportunity for the CBD industry—reports now suggest that CBD is an expanding multi-billion dollar industry.[20,21] However, though the plant source was legalized, current drug trials of CBD prevents the cannabinoid from being a legal dietary ingredient in foods, beverages, or supplements.[20] In addition, the FD&C Act prevents the sale of food products or dietary supplements containing an active drug component like CBD to be sold across state lines.

So then, how are retailers selling hemp-derived CBD products? Ultimately, they’re just willing to take on some risk. The FDA is keeping close watch on the CBD market and is developing regulations for the legality of CBD as both a drug and as a food ingredient.[20]

A summary of CBD’s effects in the brain and body

  • Based on currently available science, InsideTracker cannot recommend with certainty that you will benefit from recreational CBD use.
  • The science does look promising, and clinical trials investigating the impact of CBD are underway.
  • Based on preliminary evidence, CBD may reduce anxiety, particularly in individuals with social anxiety.
  • CBD may reduce pain in individuals with chronic pain and reduce symptoms of frequent opioid consumption.
  • CBD may impart anti-inflammatory effects.

Michelle Darian, MS, MPH

Michelle is a Nutrition Science Intern at InsideTracker. Complete with her dietetic internship, you’ll find Michelle analyzing the research behind recent nutrition trends to inform novel food and supplement recommendations.

References:

[1] Wheeler M, Merten JW, Gordon BT, Hamadi H. CBD (Cannabidiol) Product Attitudes, Knowledge, and Use Among Young Adults. Subst Use Misuse. 2020 Feb 24;1–8.

[2] Pisanti S, Malfitano AM, Ciaglia E, Lamberti A, Ranieri R, Cuomo G, et al. Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Jul;175:133–50.

[3] Chye Y, Christensen E, Solowij N, Yücel M. The Endocannabinoid System and Cannabidiol’s Promise for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:63.

[4] Bielawiec P, Harasim-Symbor E, Chabowski A. Phytocannabinoids: Useful Drugs for the Treatment of Obesity? Special Focus on Cannabidiol. Front Endocrinol. 2020;11:114.

[5] Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RHC, Chagas MHN, de Oliveira DCG, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacol Off Publ Am Coll Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 May;36(6):1219–26.

[6] Linares IM, Zuardi AW, Pereira LC, Queiroz RH, Mechoulam R, Guimarães FS, et al. Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test. Rev Bras Psiquiatr Sao Paulo Braz 1999. 2019 Feb;41(1):9–14.

[7] Larsen C, Shahinas J. Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials. J Clin Med Res. 2020 Mar;12(3):129–41.

[8] Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. 2019;23:18–041.

[9] Black N, Stockings E, Campbell G, Tran LT, Zagic D, Hall WD, et al. Cannabinoids for the treatment of mental disorders and symptoms of mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2019;6(12):995–1010.

[10] Hindocha C, Cousijn J, Rall M, Bloomfield M a. P. The Effectiveness of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Systematic Review. J Dual Diagn. 2020 Mar;16(1):120–39.

[11] Elms L, Shannon S, Hughes S, Lewis N. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. J Altern Complement Med N Y N. 2019 Apr;25(4):392–7.

[12] Kraft B, Frickey NA, Kaufmann RM, Reif M, Frey R, Gustorff B, et al. Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers. Anesthesiology. 2008 Jul;109(1):101–10.

[13] Vulfsons S, Minerbi A, Sahar T. Cannabis and Pain Treatment—A Review of the Clinical Utility and a Practical Approach in Light of Uncertainty. Rambam Maimonides Med J [Internet]. 2020 Jan 30 [cited 2020 Apr 7];11(1). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000155/

[14] Capano A, Weaver R, Burkman E. Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study. Postgrad Med. 2020 Jan;132(1):56–61.

[15] Lynch ME, Campbell F. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Nov;72(5):735–44.

[16] Babson KA, Sottile J, Morabito D. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2017 Apr;19(4):23.

[17] Zuardi AW. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr Sao Paulo Braz 1999. 2008 Sep;30(3):271–80.

[18] Burstein S. Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015 Apr 1;23(7):1377–85.

[19] Pellati F, Borgonetti V, Brighenti V, Biagi M, Benvenuti S, Corsi L. Cannabis sativa L. and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids: Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer. BioMed Res Int. 2018;2018:1691428.

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