How does one grow marijuana without first breaking the law to acquire the seed? Can you get in trouble for ordering cannabis seeds in the US? Can a potential cannabis grower get in legal trouble for ordering cannabis seeds online to the United States? Where can you safely Read about the legal state of buying marijuana seeds online in the USA, Find out where to buy marijuana seeds in the United Stated as of 2022 .
How you can legally grow marijuana in Virginia if buying and selling seeds is against the law
Diane Toscano said their law firm has been flooded with questions from clients about how to grow and to use recreational marijuana at home and not run afoul of the new laws.
RICHMOND, Va. — When Virginia’s new marijuana laws go into effect on July 1, it will become legal for adults 21+ to carry up to an ounce of marijuana. It will also become legal to grow up to four marijuana plants (per household) in Virginia.
However, it will remain illegal to buy or sell seeds with which to grow the plant.
How does one grow marijuana without first breaking the law to acquire the seed?
It’s a question that should be clarified once the new law officially takes effect and the Virginia Cannabis Control Authority jumps into action on July 1.
“Prior to decriminalization taking effect in 2020, the Commonwealth was arresting upwards of 30,000 Virginians annually for marijuana possession,” NORML development director Jenn Michelle Pedini, who also serves as the executive director of the state chapter, Virginia NORML, said. “So while Virginians may be asking, ‘Where can get I cannabis legally,’ it’s unlikely Virginians are asking, ‘Where can I get cannabis?'”
The new law does provide at least one legal loophole for interested parties to get started.
An adult can legally share or gift a marijuana plant with another adult as long as no money is exchanged or trade occurred.
It will not be legal for that “gift exchange” to happen in public.
Christopher Haynie, who co-founded Richmond-based CBD, hemp, and home grow products store Happy Tree Agricultural Supply advised
Virginians thinking of navigating the new regulations to grow the plants at home to proceed with clarity and caution.
“What we don’t want in Virginia is for people who think they’re doing the right thing to inadvertently break the law and get in trouble for it,” he said. “It’s incumbent on us as responsible adults now that cannabis is legal in Virginia to follow the rules. I’ve never been much of a rule follower, but a lot of us have been waiting for this for a long time, so we’re not going to mess it up.”
It will also be against the law for Virginians to order seeds from other states where marijuana is already legal.
VirginiaNORML has answered some frequently asked questions here.
In April, the Democrat-controlled Virginia General Assembly voted to accept Gov. Ralph Northam’s proposed changes to a marijuana legalization bill that will allow limited possession and cultivation of the drug starting in July.
Republicans, who overwhelmingly opposed the bill when it initially went through the General Assembly, railed against the latest version.
Del. Chris Head (R – Roanoke County) called the bill “a train wreck.”
“The hard-fought compromise that barely made it out of this chamber and over to the Senate has just been discarded. And why is that? It’s because some activists want marijuana legalized and they want it legalized now, consequences be damned,” he said.
It will be years before legal retail sales is allowed in Virginia.
The bill lays out the complex process of creating a new state agency to oversee the marijuana marketplace, with sales beginning and regulations going into effect on Jan. 1, 2024.
Copyright 2021 Scripps Media, Inc. The Associated Press contributed to this report. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
Can you get in trouble for ordering cannabis seeds in the US?
Can a potential cannabis grower get in legal trouble for ordering cannabis seeds online to the United States? Where can you safely buy marijuana seeds in the USA?
Can you get in trouble for buying marijuana seeds online?
I am not a lawyer or legal expert so please take anything I saw with a grain of salt. However, I’ve been growing since 2008 and running GrowWeedEasy.com to teach other people how to grow weed since 2010. Despite talking to literally thousands of growers who’ve ordered cannabis seeds online, I’ve never heard of a single example of someone getting in trouble with the law due to it. Not even in states where growing weed is strictly illegal, and not even as a secondhand story about someone else. It may be technically illegal to own cannabis seeds, but there don’t seem to be many prosecutions against cannabis seeds in the United States.
People rarely get in trouble for ordering cannabis seeds online.
However, that doesn’t mean there’s no risk.
You never know when it comes to the American legal system, but from what I’ve seen, your risks with ordering cannabis seeds online are typically social and involve growing as opposed to the actual ordering process. When growers get in trouble, it’s nearly always due to the wrong person finding out about the grow. Whether it’s a nosy neighbor, your plants smelling up the neighborhood, or telling someone you grow weed. But when it comes to seeds, don’t tell your friends you plan to buy seeds because if you suddenly start showing up with a ton of amazing weed they’re going to realize you’re growing it. So if you plan to order seeds online, keep it to yourself.
How to protect yourself when ordering seeds online
- [Most Important] Order from a trusted cannabis seed bank that sells good genetics. Don’t get scammed with bad seeds or someone who takes your money and doesn’t send anything.
- Don’t tell anyone in your life that you plan to buy cannabis seeds or grow. They will remember your words when you suddenly start overflowing with dank weed and realize you’re growing.
- (Optional) Pay with crypto like Bitcoin or Ethereum or another anonymous payment method (I personally order with my regular bank debit card but I live in California)
- (Optional) Order to a second home address if you have one, but this is likely unnecessary.
Where to order seeds safely in the United States?
Remember when it comes to buying seeds: Real seed businesses don’t contact you. They let you contact them. If anyone messages you to sell you seeds on social media, look out! It’s possible they will take your payment and send nothing. Always take a second to think before sending money to anyone, especially if they contact you (whether by DM, text message, phone call, email, etc.).
Recommended Marijuana Seed Sources
These sources have gotten great reviews from our readers:
– California, United States (I Love Growing Marijuana) – California, United States – Shipped out of the UK
Seed Supreme has the best cannabis seed selection of these options. They carry many unique strains from old classics to trendy newer genetics.
The Platinum Cookies plant I’m growing now from Seed Supreme is the one pictured here in the middle. So far it’s the fastest-growing plant in the tent (check out the grow journal in progress).
Ultimate Auto has the best yields of any auto-flowering strain I’ve grown so far. This plant produced over 4 oz per plant even with only a corner of the grow tent to itself.
The biggest downside to ILGM as a seed source is their website can be difficult to navigate and find the strains you’re looking for. Their strain search is wonky and sometimes the search results are unexpected. But hey, you may find new and interesting strains that way.
MSNL Seeds was founded by a geneticist and they only carry hand-selected strains. They have a relatively small strain selection but the yields, bud quality, and plant growth are excellent. Tends to be a little cheaper than other trustworthy seed banks.
I have had amazing luck with MSNL’s autoflowering strains, like this Auto Amnesia grown in a mini tent under a 100W LED grow light.
Buying Marijuana Seeds in United States 2022
Laws on Buying & Growing Marijuana Seeds in the United States. Growing Tips, Recommended Strains, and the Best Seed Banks That Ship to the United States For the 2022 Growing Season.
In recent years, the United States has seen its cannabis laws change rapidly. While the election outcome in November 2016 has kept federal cannabis laws from changing, individual states have taken up the push for reform, changing their laws to allow legal medical – and in many cases, recreational cannabis. A change of cannabis laws at the federal level in Canada will likely put pressure on the US to legalize as a country, but until then, all of the action is happening at the state level. Here’s all you need to know about using and possessing marijuana, as well as growing or buying cannabis seeds in the United States.
In a Nutshell — Which U.S. States Allow Americans to Buy and Grow Cannabis Seeds from Seed Banks?
As you travel throughout the United States, you’ll find that different states have different laws pertaining to recreational or medical marijuana — especially in seed form.
In some states, both recreational and medical marijuana are legal, while others only allow people to possess pot and buy cannabis seeds from seed banks for the purpose of cultivation if they have a prescription from a doctor.
While the specific laws are different in each state, let’s break down which states allow cannabis cultivators to buy and grow cannabis seeds.
You’ll be surprised by how many states allow home cultivators to buy and grow weed seeds from local or online seed banks for medical or recreational purposes!
As of 2022, Recreational and Medical Marijuana Is Legal In:
- Alaska (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Alaska)
- California (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in California)
- Colorado (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Colorado)
- Connecticut (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Connecticut)
- Maine (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Maine)
- Michigan (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Michigan)
- Massachusetts (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Massachusetts)
- Nevada (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Nevada)
- New Mexico (Recreational weed is legal starting June 2021.) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in New Mexico)
- New York (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in New York)
- Oregon (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Oregon)
- Vermont (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Vermont)
- Northern Mariana Islands
- Guam (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Guam)
- Washington (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Washington)
- The District of Columbia (or Washington D.C.) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Washington DC)
- Arizona (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Arizona)
- Illinois (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Illinois)
- Montana (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Montana)
- New Jersey (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in New Jersey)
States That Have Legalized Medical, but Not Recreational, Marijuana Are:
- Alabama (Alabama just passed medical cannabis, but the law has yet to go into effect) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Alabama)
- Arkansas (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Arkansas)
- Delaware (recreational weed has been decriminalized but is still illegal) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Delaware)
- Florida (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Florida)
- Georgia (Georgia doesn’t have medical marijuana but does allow access to low-THC CBD products) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Georgia)
- Hawaii (recreational weed has been decriminalized but is still illegal) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Hawaii)
- Indiana (Indiana’s medical cannabis program only includes access to low-THC products like CBD oil) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Indiana)
- Iowa (Iow’s medical cannabis program only includes access to low-THC products like CBD oil) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Iowa)
- Kentucky (Kentucky doesn’t have medical marijuana but does allow access to low-THC CBD products) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Kentucky)
- Louisiana (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Louisiana)
- Maryland (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Maryland)
- Minnesota (recreational weed has been decriminalized but is still illegal) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Minnesota)
- Missouri (recreational weed has been decriminalized but is still illegal) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Missouri)
- New Hampshire (recreational weed, in quantities up to ¾ oz, has been decriminalized but is still illegal) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in New Hampshire)
- North Carolina (North Carolina doesn’t have medical marijuana but does allow access to low-THC CBD products) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in North Carolina)
- North Dakota (recreational weed has been decriminalized, in quantities under .5 oz, but is still illegal) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in North Dakota)
- Ohio (recreational weed has been decriminalized but is still illegal) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Ohio)
- Oklahoma (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Oklahoma)
- Pennsylvania (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Pennsylvania)
- Puerto Rico (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Puerto Rico)
- Rhode Island (recreational weed has been decriminalized but is still illegal) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Rhode Island)
- South Carolina (South Carolina doesn’t have medical marijuana but does allow access to low-THC CBD products) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in South Carolina)
- South Dakota (medical marijuana program begins July 2021) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in South Dakota)
- Tennessee (Tennessee is still extremely restrictive, the medical marijuana program only includes access to low-THC products like CBD oil) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Tennessee)
- Texas (Texas is still extremely restrictive, the medical marijuana program only includes access to low-THC products like CBD oil) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Texas)
- United States Virgin Islands (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in the United States Virgin Islands)
- Utah (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Utah)
- Virginia (recreational weed will be legal beginning July 1, 2021) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Virginia)
- West Virginia (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in West Virginia)
States That Have Complete Marijuana Prohibition Are:
- Idaho (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Idaho)
- Kansas (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Kansas)
- Mississippi (Only medical CBD oil is allowed) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Mississippi)
- Nebraska (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Nebraska)
- Wisconsin (Only medical CBD oil is allowed) (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Wisconsin)
- Wyoming (Guide: Buy Cannabis Seeds in Wyoming)
However, it’s crucial to note that cannabis in all forms is illegal at the federal level.
Now that you have a clear picture of the legal framework of which states in the USA allow medical or recreational marijuana — continue reading to learn everything there is to know about buying and growing cannabis seeds in the US, such as:
- The best cannabis seeds to buy in the United States
- A curated list of grow tips
- Our recommended list of top-rated seed banks that ship to the USA
- The laws throughout the US that govern buying and growing marijuana seeds from seed banks
Are you ready to buy cannabis seeds with ease from online seed banks for the 2022 growing season? If so — scroll down and continue reading!
Girl Scout Cookies
Growing Cannabis Seeds in The United States
If you live in a cannabis-friendly state and you’re ready to test out your green thumb — it’s time to buy marijuana seeds from a seed bank and get growing!
However, there are a few obstacles that you must consider, such as:
- Which cannabis seeds are best for your specific climate?
- Which marijuana seed strains are the best overall to grow in the US?
Continue reading to find out which cannabis seed strains rank high on our list, along with professional growing tips that’ll transform your 2022 growing season into a bumper-crop year.
When to Sprout Cannabis Seeds in The United States
Once your prized cannabis seeds arrive from a seed bank — it’s time to determine when to germinate them.
Remember — the United States is big. In other words, there are many different climate zones, with each exhibiting unique obstacles to the grower.
However, here’s the general timeline of when to sprout your new weed seeds:
- March-April (warmer climate zones, such as California)
- April-May (cooler climate zones, such as Minnesota)
Ultimately, once the threat of frost passes — it’s time to plop your weed seeds in the ground and wait for them to poke out their heads. As long as you buy marijuana seeds from a reputable seed bank — you’re sure to experience a high germination rate.
Issues to Consider When Growing Marijuana Seeds in The United States
As with the previous section, each state’s climate is a major limiting factor to which marijuana seed strains you can grow.
Tips for Growing Cannabis Seeds in the USA
Now, let’s discuss a few tips for growing marijuana seeds in the United States.
Buy Cannabis Seeds from a Reputable Online or Local Seed Bank in the US
The most important tip that we can recommend is always to buy marijuana seeds from a reputable seed bank.
By buying marijuana seeds from highly-ranked seed banks, you’ll ensure:
- High germination rate
- Vigorous plants
- Sky-high yields
- Verified seed strains
Buy Cannabis Seeds for The State’s Climate
In warmer regions, such as California, intense heat waves occur in the summer, which can scorch your crop. Alternatively, colder regions, such as Maine, experience long winters and short summers.
Unless you grow your marijuana seed strains indoors, you must choose cannabis seed strains that offer adequate flowering times. The primary reason is that you don’t want to grow a long flowering strain in a region that exhibits a short summer, or vice versa.
Luckily, our recommended seed banks display flowering times on seed descriptions, so you know what to expect!
Plan Your Cannabis Garden In Advance
Last but not least is always to plan your marijuana garden.
It’s helpful to write what you need to do and then check off each part of the list as you complete them. Here’s a mock-up of a list that’ll help you ensure a heavy yielding cannabis garden:
- Determine your climate
- Choose the best cannabis seed strain for your climate
- Buy the marijuana seeds from a reputable seed bank
- Plan your garden
- Get growing!
Which Marijuana Seed Store Is the Best Option for US Residents?
Ok, now we’re getting to the fun part!
Although cannabis seeds are illegal under federal law — they are legal in most states that allow medical or recreational marijuana. However, if you live in a draconian state that doesn’t allow either — it’s easy to find a seed store that ships to any state in the USA.
As a US resident (depending on where you live), you have the choice of buying cannabis seeds from a local seed store or online seed bank. Let’s take a look at your two options and which is the best route.
Local American Seed Stores
If you wish to support a local seed store in the United States, this option may appeal to you.
Brands such as Greenwolf, Los Angeles Farmers, and many other storefront dispensaries in the US offer marijuana seeds. However, many of the cannabis seeds on offer are expensive and may not be verified.
Once again, if you absolutely want to buy marijuana seeds from a local seed shop — most recreational and medical states allow it. You may, however, be disappointed by the seed selection.
Online Seed Banks That Ship to The United States
If you’re looking for deals, immense selection, and top-shelf seed strains — look no further than buying weed seeds from online seed banks that ship to all states in the USA.
From stealth-shipping to ultra-fast shipping speeds — here are our top two seed banks that ship marijuana seeds to the United States.
– The quality of cannabis seeds that you can purchase from MSNL seed bank makes it one of the best around when buying marijuana seeds in the United States. Based in London, United Kingdom, marijuana-seeds.nl is known for reliably delivering juicy strains at low prices. MSNL accepts Bitcoin (including other cryptocurrencies), debit/credit cards, bank transfers, cash, and money orders. – A reputable breeder and seed store, discreetly ships to the United States. They deliver when they say they will do so and provide supreme-quality cannabis seeds, including shipping and germination guarantees. There are several ways to pay, from cash, credit cards, Bitcoin, or bank transfer — you name it!
Marijuana-Seeds.NL – High Quality Genetics. Shipping Worldwide.
Recommended Cannabis Seed Strains to Buy from Online Seed Banks and Grow in The United States
When you want to grow the best weed imaginable — buy these three top-shelf seed strains from a reputable seed bank for mind-blowing results.
Girl Scout Cookies
Girl Scout Cookies
When it comes to American weed — nothing is as red, white, and blue as the Girl Scout Cookies seed strain.
From ease-of-growth to dense nugs covered in frost, you’ll never get tired of this indica-dominant beauty. Furthermore, the Girl Scout Cookies seed strain offers an 8-week flowering time, making it perfect for all United States regions.
Super Silver Haze
Super Silver Haze
If you want an energetic blitz with award-winning characteristics to back it up — look no further than the Super Silver Haze seed strain.
Although Super Silver Haze grows tall — it can be tamed indoors or outdoors with a few training techniques. At 9-10-weeks, the Super Silver Haze seed strain is one of the fastest flowering sativa-dominant hybrids around.
Known for its hands-off growth, you’ll enjoy these tropically potent buds anywhere in the USA come harvest time.
The Wedding Cake seed strain is a match made in heaven.
With enough THC content that’ll make your head spin, you’ll be saying “I do” before you know what’s happening. Growers that buy Wedding Cake seeds from reputable seed banks will find a rapid flowering beauty that generates a lot of gorgeous weed for an indica-dominant variety.
In other words, the Wedding Cake seed strain is easy to grow and perfect for nearly any climate zone in the US. It simply doesn’t get better than this!
Remember, you can find these three cannabis seed strains at our recommended seed banks in feminized form.
The Smorgasbord of Medical and Recreational Cannabis Laws in The United States
Before we begin this section, here’s the TLDR version of the essential facts regarding cannabis laws in the united states:
- Cannabis (in all forms) is illegal at the federal level
- Individual states may enact laws that legalize medical or recreational cannabis laws
- Each individual state’s cannabis regulations may differ from one to the other
Laws vary from state to state in terms of how much weed you can possess, what forms of cannabis you can legally buy, who can qualify to purchase it for medical purposes, and how many plants you can grow, should you buy cannabis seeds from a seed bank in the United States.
Examples of What to Expect When Buying Cannabis Seeds from Seed Stores from State to State
For example, in Alaska, you’re allowed to possess up to an ounce of weed and buy cannabis seeds from seed banks. Meanwhile, in Oregon, while you can only carry an ounce while in public, you can have up to eight ounces stashed at home and any number of un-germinated seeds from a seed bank.
Traveling from State to State with Cannabis Seeds
Should you travel from state to state within the United States, check to determine what the individual laws are where you’ll be staying. In states with legal weed, it’s legal to drive around with cannabis seeds that you’ve purchased from a local or online seed bank as long as they’re in their original packaging.
What You Should Never Do While Traveling with Cannabis Seeds or Flowers
It is never legal to drive while under the influence of marijuana. If you do and get caught, you’re going to have a bad time.
It’s also illegal to take marijuana flowers or cannabis seeds over state lines (even into another weed-friendly state). As individual state laws are undergoing a lot of changes where cannabis is concerned, do a bit of reading on the specifics of wherever you’re planning to travel to see if there have been any updates before you go.
Cannabis Products and Cannabis Seeds Are Always Illegal at the Federal Level — for Now
However, it’s important to remember that any individual state law may change; federal cannabis policy in the U.S. remains unaffected for the time being. Under the Federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970, marijuana was classified as a Schedule I drug, placing it among harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin. With the enactment of the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp and products derived from it were no longer classified as Schedule I substances.
James M. Cole, the Deputy Attorney General under former U.S. President Barack Obama, issued a memorandum in 2013 stating that the Justice Department would not focus on enforcement in states that had “legalized marijuana in some form…” This took some of the pressure off of dispensaries (and their clientele) in states with legal cannabis. In 2018, Attorney General Jeff Sessions (who was appointed by President Donald Trump) rescinded the memo, creating an uproar in the cannabis community. Fortunately, the Trump Justice Department did not take action to enforce federal cannabis laws, allowing the cannabis industry to continue operating in states that had legalized it.
Buying & Growing Cannabis Seeds Recreationally: Differences Within the USA
Depending on where you go in the United States, you will find different laws on weed cultivation and buying cannabis seeds from seed banks in 2022. At the federal level, buying cannabis seeds is illegal. It’s also illegal to buy them if you live in a state where possessing and growing your own weed isn’t legal.
In states with legalized cannabis, just as with possessing and using weed, laws governing growing and buying cannabis seeds differ from state to state. Under D.C. law, for example, an adult (21 years and older) can cultivate up to six marijuana plants (with a maximum of twelve plants to a household) in one location for recreational purposes. Only three plants per person may be mature at one time. Also, you can transfer up to one ounce of weed as an adult to another adult, but marijuana sales are still illegal there. So gift away if you live in D.C., but don’t allow any money to change hands!
Meanwhile, in Oregon, you can only grow up to four plants from seed for recreational reasons. Also, to cultivate at home, you must pay fees, and the marijuana odor must be controlled in a manner as such that the public does not notice it. Selling cannabis without a license is forbidden there, as is the case in most states with legalized pot.
In Alaska, personal cannabis cultivation from seed is restricted to six plants, but only three of them can be flowering at one time. Transfer limits are one ounce, which is the same as in D.C. As you can see, it’s important to know before you grow!
Legal Analysis: Buying Medical Marijuana Seeds in The US from Seed Banks in 2022
For patients, knowing medical marijuana seed laws is important so that you stay compliant. Possession limits vary by state, so be sure to research laws in your current location in 2022 to understand how many cannabis seeds to buy from a local or online seed bank.
Here are a few examples:
In New Jersey, where the law governing medical cannabis was passed in 2010, patients can legally germinate up to six cannabis seeds and possess three ounces of usable weed for medicinal use in any given 30 day period.
However, go to Montana, and you can germinate four cannabis seeds and possess five ounces total in a month. The limits are different, yet again, in Delaware; the legal possession limit for medical marijuana patients is six usable ounces. The laws differ still in New Hampshire, where you can possess only two ounces of usable marijuana for medical purposes for ten days.
In other US states, you can legally possess a certain number of plants for medical use; though be aware that not all states allow for the home-growing from cannabis seeds. In New Mexico, you can legally have up to 16 plants, with up to four of them being mature at one time. Go to Vermont, though, and you will see this number cut down to six, with only two flowering at one time.
These examples show that you need to be aware of the legal limits regarding growing cannabis seeds in the state where you reside, to ensure you stay on the right side of the law. Moving between states means you must be cognizant of the local laws and recognize that laws can change quickly.